Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine and this class of drugs enhance the polysynaptic inhibitory processes at all levels of the central nervous system. Clonazepam is more effective in blocking spread of electrical activity in the lesion itself.and is used primarily as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of absence seizures, petit mal variant seizures (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome), akinetic and myoclonic seizures, and nocturnal myoclonus. It is also used for treatment of panic and anxiety disorders
Clonazepam enhances the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Although the exact site and mode of the anticonvulsant action of clonazepam is unknown, it is known that allosteric interactions between central benzodiazepine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors potentiate the effects of GABA. As GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, this results in increased inhibition of the ascending reticular activating system. Benzodiazepines, in this way, block the cortical and limbic arousal that occurs following stimulation of the reticular pathways. In humans, clonazepam suppresses the spike and wave discharge in absence seizures (petit mal) and decreases the frequency, amplitude, duration, and spread of discharge in minor motor seizures.
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